The Ingenuity #Mars Helicopter is set to make history. It will make the first attempt at powered flight on another planet today, April 19. Here is an animation of how today’s attempt would be carried . You can watch live with the helicopter team as they receive the data and find out if they were successful in mission control beginning at 6:15 a.m. EDT (10:15 a.m. UTC) i.e. 3.45 pm Indian Standard Time (IST) Visit for Live Broadcast.


12 Apr is proclaimed by UN as "International Day of Human Space Flight"..60 years ago today First Human ever to reach space Yuri Gagarin was launched into Space on 12 Apr 1961 and returned back after completing one circle around Earth.
Yuri Gagarin was first human to have entered outer space on 12 Apr 1961. Citizen of former USSR now Russia completed one orbit around Earth over 108 minutes in the Vostok 3Ka spacecraft after being launched on a Vostok-K rocket from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan . To mark this historic event in 2011 the United Nations Proclaimed 12 April International Day of Human Space Flight to celebrate every year. Planetary Society, India would conduct series of activities to celebrate this historic event in history of humankind for over a year in 2021-22.


📻 Today is World Radio Day. For those born before 1990..this tune was very common as everyday Morning Alarm streaming one's home/neighbours radio. Inspite of Black&White Tv in those days ..Radio was first source of information&Day would begin with this signature tune.Now times have changed.You don't need a Radioset/Earphones connected to mobile.You can hear Prog of Live Radio in various languages on Mobile App or DTH or website .. AIR's has 420 stations located across the country. It broadcast programmes in 23 languages&179 dialects.

FIRST CABINET 1947- GANDHIJI SUGGESTION-A LESSON FOR STUDENTS  This video proves we have to develop/excel in any subject in such way that..No one be able to Ignore us even when they know we are his/her Opponent while understanding it's there loss if Ignore.Dr.Ambedkar Life shows there are also people to support if want to study&excel with determination.Here is video of a situation when  Nehru&Sardar Patelji meet Gandhi ji with Fair List of  Cabinet for new Govt.But Gandhiji suggests

7 non-members of Congress&ask ensure to include women, Muslim, Parsis, Sikh& Harijans.

Understanding Gandhiji indication..Nehruji replies we have Babu Jagjivanram name in the list.

For which Gandhiji asks what about Ambedkar and says following words

“He is my old OPPONENT... it’s also true that in Entire India ...reg- subjects of CONSTITUTION&LAW....there is no one else better than him who knows. If you don’t utilize the knowledge and experience of Mr. Ambedkar ...loss is not his...lts Hindustan’s loss”

Earth at Closet Point to Sun 2 Jan 2021

      Earth revolves around Sun in an elliptical orbit. So at one point of time during its journey around the sun, it will be at the closest point it can get (perihelion) and at one point of time during the year it would be at the farthest point (aphelion). On 2nd January 2021 at 7.27 pm Planet Earth will reach the closest point to Sun in its annual elliptical orbit around Sun at 0.9832571 AU i.e. at 14,70,93,168 km from Sun. Astronomically this phenomenon is known as “Perihelion”. Whereas on 6th July 2021 at 3:46 a.m. IST Earth will be at Aphelion at 1.0167292 AU (15,21,00,523 km) from Sun i.e. which is the farthest point from Sun.I

Inother words, due to Perihelion on 2nd Jan 2021 Earth, tomorrow will be 50,07,355 km closer to Sun compared to 6th July 2021. Though people will not able to notice or observe this celestial event. This event is of greatest importance with educational potential for students and the public to understand temperatures or Seasons on Earth are not dependant on the distance of Earth to the Sun but axial tilt during its journey around the Sun. 

Distance not Reason for Seasons: Commonly it is believed that the distance of Earth to the Sun decides the season or temperature on Earth. However, it is not true. Axial tilt (approx. 23.5 Degree) of Earth on its axis while revolving around Sun regulates seasons on planet Earth with one of the Hemisphere facing away or towards Sun.

Evidence/Example: At the beginning of the year every January Month it is winter in most of the countries in the Northern Hemisphere. Whereas Earth is at closest it can get to Sun at beginning of the year 2021. Whereas it’s summer in Southern Hemisphere countries. Also in July when Earth is at the farthest point from Sun it’s mostly hot in India compared to what it is in January. This clearly shows Distance of Earth to Sun doesn’t decide the Season but its tilt during its yearly journey around Sun.

21 Dec 2020 Jupiter and Saturn Conjunction

On 21 December 2020 at 11.51 pm one of the splendid celestial phenomena “Jupiter in Conjunction with Saturn” will occur.  In other words, both Jupiter and Saturn will appear to be near each other as seen from Earth after Sunset. The last time this kind of close encounter between Jupiter and Saturn occurred was on 16 July 1623. Whereas the next time Jupiter and Saturn will be on 15 March 2080.  Though, this astronomical phenomenon will occur close to midnight people in India can see these two planet’s closest encounter easily for an hour after Sunset between 6.15 p.m. to 7.30 pm. As both of these Planets will set in the West by 8.02 p.m. They appear like non-twinkling star-like objects to bare eyes.

Direction & Timings – How to find which is Jupiter or Saturn?    Half an hour after Sunset around 6.20  pm onwards one should look towards West Direction then he/she first would see two non-twinkling star-like objects. Wherein the brightest one is Planet Jupiter and the other one being Planet Saturn.  Though Planet Jupiter will not occult or eclipse Planet Saturn people may experience difficulty to notice the gap between Jupiter and Saturn on 21 Dec 2020. However, till the end of the year as days pass by people can witness the growing gap/distance between these two objects in the sky after Sunset.  

Observe What happens after 21 Dec 2020? Jupiter – Saturn - Moving Apart: What is more interesting is that this coming together of these two planets has been noticed by people across the world for two weeks now. However, after 21st December 2020 people can observe these planets moving away from each other in the sky over the next few days/weeks. Hence PSI suggests people take a selfie with Jupiter & Saturn.

Are they really close or they appear so from Earth? Interestingly though Saturn and Jupiter are separated by enormous distance & location of orbits. Due to phenomena of Conjunction for an observer on earth they appear near each other in Earth’s Sky. i.e. present positions of these planets while on their journey around the Sun is such that they appear near each other from Earth.

On 21 December 2020 Distance between Earth and Jupiter is at 5.9 A.U. i.e. 88,41,23,415Km  (88.41 Crores Kilometers). Whereas the distance between Earth and Saturn is at 10.82 AU. i.e 161,86,48,961 Km (161.86 Crores Kilometers). Importantly Distance between Jupiter and Saturn on 21 Dec 2020 is 4.9 A.U. i.e. 73,31,37,000 km (73.31 Crore Kilometers). Hence though these planets appear to be near each other, they are separated by enormous distances among themselves and from Earth.

Importance – Coming together: It is a known fact that Planet Jupiter orbits Sun once every 11.86 years whereas Saturn goes around Sun once every 29.5 Years. So once in every 19 years and 7 months conjunction of Jupiter with Saturn occurs. But the degree of separation between them varies and will not be this close like on 21 Dec 2020 or Year 1623.  Normally depending on their position around Sun in their orbit the rising and setting time of these Planets is determined. Based on this either Jupiter, Saturn appear in the morning or evening or some time together separated by minutes to hours. But the present geometrical position of Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn in such that both these planets appear very near to each other in the sky at the same time after Sunset in the evening sky.

12 Anniversary Indian Flag landing on Moon - Spot 3 Planets - Dark Sky an Ancient Heritage

 This Diwali people have more than one reason to celebrate. On 14 November marks 12th Anniversary (Chandrayaan1-MIP) of Indian Flag landing on Moon. As it celebrated as CHILDREN’S DAY across India. After Sunset people can locate three planets Mars (in East), Jupiter, and Saturn (in South West Direction) as non-twinkling Star like objects. As courts have imposed restrictions on crackers.  Planetary Society, India requests people to celebrate this year’s Diwali realizing “Dark Sky as Ancient Heritage” as only 10’s among lakhs of stars are visible due to pollution which is a result of blindfolded development activities of humans.

I) Indian Flag Etched Moon Impact Probe (MIP) of Chandrayaan Landed on Moon 14 Nov 2008 – 12th Anniversary – Water Discovery : 14th November  is the day when in year 2008  The Moon Impact Probe (MIP) a lunar probe developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) with Indian Flag etched onto it was released by ISRO's Chandrayaan-1 mission on to the surface of moon. The Moon Impact Probe separated from the moon-orbiting Chandrayaan-1 on 14 November 2008 at  20:06 and crash-landed, as planned, into the lunar south pole after a controlled descent.  Moon Impact Probe(MIP) struck the Shackleton Crater of Southern pole of Moon at 20:31 on 14 November 2008 thus making India fourth nation among five to land its flag on Moon.

Later in the Year 2009, NASA with its Moon Mineralogy Mapper confirmed the presence of water on the Moon. Even ISRO presented the data of Moon Impact Probe (MIP) and announced the discovery of Water vapor in the Lunar Atmosphere.

Every Year since 2008 Planetary Society of India has been giving call for celebration of this great achievement of India. Unfortunately, not many people still know this fact that the Indian Flag landed on the Moon and celebrate 14 November every year as “Children’s Day”. Hence we request people to join us on Whatsapp 7993482012 or at or to celebrate 12 Anniversary of Indian Flag landing on Moon.

II) THREE PLANETS TILL YEAR-END – Direction/Time: Further as the courts have imposed restrictions on firecrackers etc.. during this Diwali and other celebrations. People can expect pollution-free Skies and utilize the opportunity to locate Planets.

After Sunset if one looks at East Direction one can see a reddish star-like object. Which is however not twinkling because it is Planet Mars. Further if one looks at South West Direction one can Spot another bright non-twinkling star-like object which is Planet Jupiter. And Just on to the left of Jupiter people can spot Dim Star-like Object which is Planet Saturn. So all in all people can spot Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn for many days to come after Sunset easily till the end of the year 2020.

III) DARK NIGHT SKY – AN ANCIENT HERITAGE: Since time immemorial people have always looked at the skies. Long ago night sky filled with stars was a common thing. However due to climate change, Pollution and various factors we do not see the same sky, the number of Stars that our ancestors used to see long ago. The United Nations recognizes “Dark Night Sky” as an Ancient Heritage. Whereas people normally think only Historical buildings are Ancient Heritage.


In UNISPACE III Declaration of 1999 at Vienna  says “Having in mind that humans have always gazed at the sky with wonder and that from such was born the curiosity that drove early astronomers to study the movements of celestial bodies, from which the foundations of modern space science and technology were laid” .


On the occasion of Diwali which is celebrated as the victory of light over the dark Planetary Society of India requests people to protect dark skies from pollution particularly light pollution. As Dark Night Sky is an ancient heritage. Importantly light pollution (for example LED Street Lights) is not only disturbing animals, wildlife, Birds, etc..  it is badly affecting the circadian rhythm (popularly known as Body Clock) of humans.

Planet Mars Closest to Earth on 6 Oct 2020

 On 6th Oct 2020, Planet Mars will be the closest it can get to Earth in other words Planet Mars in its journey around Sun will reach a point in its orbit which is the closest it can get at 7.47 p.m. on 6th  Oct 2020 at 0.415 AU i.e 6,20,83,116 km (62.02 Million Km).

Why Mars is Closest every 26 months? This closest approach of Mars is due to a celestial phenomenon called “Mars Opposition to the Sun” which occurs once every 26 months. On 14 Oct 2020 at 4.56 a.m. IST Mars will be at Opposition to Sun because of which Planet Mars will be the closest it can get to earth in the next 13 years.

 Due to this celestial phenomenon of opposition Mars and Sun will be Opposite to Each other and in a straight line from our perspective on earth. Whenever a planet is in Opposition it would be closest in its orbit to earth than any other time. Hence this year Mars will appear Closest, brightest, biggest (from Telescope). 

Closest in 13 years - Similar Distance in 2033  : As of 6th Oct 2020 at 7.47 p.m. Planet Mars is placed at 0.415 AU i.e. 62.02 million km. Generally, the Minimum Distance from Mars to Earth is 55.7 Million km whereas the Maximum Distance Planet Mars can be away from Earth is 401.3 Million Km. So considering the Closest/Farthest distance of Mars can get to earth Oct 2020 is one of the best opportunity for people to see and appreciate Mars. It will take another 13 Years for Mars to match 2020 closeness to earth i.e. in June 2033.

Distance Data - Mars Opposition & Closest approach to Earth

 Occurs once in every 26 Months

14 Oct 2020

Mars distance to earth: 0.419 AU,

8 Dec 2022

Mars distance to earth: 0.550 AU,

16 Jan 2025

 Mars distance to earth: 0.644 AU,

19 Feb 2027

 Mars distance to earth: 0.678 AU,

25 Mar 2029

 Mars distance to earth: 0.649 AU

4 May 2031

Mars distance to earth: 0.559 AU

28 Jun 2033



Mars distance to earth: 0.427 AU


On 21 June 2020 one of the first visible eclipse of the decade named as “Annular Solar Eclipse” will occur. Though annular phase (popularly known as Ring of Fire) of Eclipse is visible only in few places of northern India, rest of India will observe this event as partial solar eclipse.  

Timings across the world:  across the world the Eclipse in Various Phases occur between 9.16 a.m. IST (3.46 a.m. UTC) to 3.04 p.m. IST (9.34 a.m. UTC). Wherein Greatest Phase of Eclipse is at  12.10 p.m. IST (6.40 a.m. UTC). In India depending on the location of a Person from Central path the eclipse mostly in partial phase will visible between 9.56 a.m. to 2.29 p.m.  Across the world this Eclipse is visible in the region covering Africa (except Western and Southern parts), southeast Europe, Middle East, Asia (except North and Eastern Russia), Indonesia, etc..

Telugu States – Timings – Appearance of Sun: In TELANGANA Hyderabad (10.15 a.m.  to 1.44 p.m.) Greatest Phase of Eclipse at 11.56 a.m. with 51% of Sun covered by Moon. Whereas in ANDHRA PRADESH (Vijaywadada 10.21 a.m. to 1.49 p.m) Greatest Phase at 12.03 p.m. with 46%.At Greatest Phase Sun is expected to be visible in the form of Half Moon in Telugu states.  

Central Path – Ring of Fire places in India: Timings (Start & End) of Eclipse, Percentage of Sun Covered etc.. are based on the location of the observer from Central Path of the Eclipse. Though the central path of this eclipse begins it journey in Congo (Africa), in India, it traverses from Suratgarh (Rajasthan), Sirsa&Kurukshetra (Haryana), Dehradhun, Chamoli and Joshimath in Uttarakhand thus giving people in these areas  opportunity to observe Sun as Ring of Fire. And after its stint in India, it will continue towards China, Taiwan, and end in Pacific Ocean

First and Last People to Witness Start/End In India: with Moon already covered a part of Sun’s Disk, people of Dwarka will be first to witness the eclipse starting at 9.56 a.m. Whereas at one of the easternmost part of India in Dibrugarh people will watch the eclipse till 2.29 p.m as here the eclipse visibility starts and ends late compared to the rest of India. Importantly for people of Kanyakumari the eclipse will end very early then rest of India at 1.15 p.m.

Appearance Of Sun – Greatest Phase – Timings on 21st June – Depending on Location: Between beginning and ending of any eclipse “Greatest Eclipse” phase is the time to watch out, as covering/obscuration of Sun by Moon will be maximum for any location during this time i.e. between 11.31 a.m. to 12.51 am across India. And the Sun will appear like ranging from Crescent to Quarter or half-covered by Moon than its normal shape. Whereas Sun will appear as a ring in few places in Northern India. Location of an observer from Central path of the eclipse determines when and how Sun is visible during maximum phase. 

North to South – West to East – Approximate Percentage:  On 21 June when eclipse it at maximum the percentage of coverage of Sun’s disk by Moon will be between 50% to 21% in Southern India. It will range between 84% to 95% for people Northernmost past of India. Whereas in Central India or Western parts or Eastern or Northeastern parts of India people will see between 70%-86% of Sun covered by Moon. In other words, as a person moves away from the Central path of eclipse which passes he/she will less see lesser obscuration of Sun by Moon. 

Pregnant Ladies – Superstitions Restriction – Food Spoilage – No Govt & WHO – Health Alerts :  During eclipse various restrictions in the form of rituals based on a misunderstanding of Eclipse are imposed on Pregnant ladies in India. Cleft lip and cleft palate which is a medical condition is wrongly associated with Eclipse as after effect in unborn kids. It’s interesting to note WHO never in thev past declared Eclipse as Pendemic or never issued any health notification for Indian women to follow during Eclipse. Further FSSAI (regarding Food), Ministry of Health & Govt Dept.s in tune with a universal understanding of Eclipse as normal celestial event hasn’t issued any specific health notification except on eye care to watch the eclipse with special certified solar filters.