75th Republic Day Celebrations of India

 **Happy 75th Republic Day**: While the common man often confuses. Independence Day and Republic Day as one and the same .

 **In the compilation above**👆 we tried to explain the status of people in our country between 15 Aug 1947 to 1950. **In simple words** earlier people under British rule/dominion had British India's Passport. *Whereas* only after  26 Jan 1950 the passports carried the words   **Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य)*. This is because the Constitution of India came into effect 75 years ago on this day.

IMPORTANCE OF BEING REPUBLIC : Its a fact that there are many nations who got independence. But how many are Republic. **How does that make any difference*"? Just look at North Korea, Afghanistan & many of our neighbours..they got independence. But instead of people they are ruled by the military ruler , elected dictator etc. People are ruled under various restrictions. Whereas on 26 Jan 1950 India became republic as Indian Constitution came to operation. Since then and till date even after 75 years. India still remains Republic.

ISRO NRSC IMAGE - Ram temple consecration celebrations - Best Wishes - Message for Universal Brotherhood

 Ram temple consecration celebrations - Best Wishes - Message for Universal Brotherhood: Today across India celebrations associated with the consecration of Sri Ramji Temple were done peacefully. The Indian Space Research Organisation published the following image of the Ayodhya Temple from Space using the Cartosat Series of Satellites. ISRO/NRSC/CARTOSAT Satellite Image of Ayodhya Ram Temple from Space was taken on 16 Dec 2023.

On this occasion let's all pledge to make our country India and Planet Earth a better place for every creature to Live.

Earth at Closest (Perihelion) to Sun on 3 Jan in Year 2024

Earth at Perihelion on 3 Jan 2024: Today, on the morning of January 3, 2024, Earth marked a celestial event known as Perihelion. During this astronomical occurrence, our planet reached the closest point in its elliptical orbit around the Sun for the entire year.

Unlike a perfect circle, Earth's path around the Sun is shaped like an ellipse, resembling a slightly elongated oval. This elliptical orbit leads to variations in the distance between Earth and the Sun throughout the year. Wherein sometimes Earth reaches the farthest or closest point to the Sun.

Today on 3 Jan 2024 at 6.22 a.m. our Earth reached the Closest point it can get to the Sun in 2024. As explained above on 5 July 2024 this year Earth will be at the farthest point it can get to the Sun. Which is called Aphelion.

Here is an image of the Sun from the Year 2015 taken on the day when it was at Perihelion and on the day when it was at Aphelion.

NEW COMPOSITE IMAGE OF NGC 2264 - Happy and Merry Christmas

In the true sense of Planetary Society, India's motto: Cosmic Understanding for Universal Brotherhood.

We Wish you a Happy and Merry Christmas with the following article based on NASA's latest composite image/Article of NGC 2264 Our Sun has been shining for 4.6 billion years; it is one among countless other stars that twinkle in the night sky. Our Sun also plays the role of a planetary host, with Earth and its cosmic companions elegantly revolving around it. Here is an image of a cluster of stars and gas situated 2,500 light-years away from Earth in our Milky Way. Scientifically, it is called NGC 2264 and was captured by NASA’s Chandra X-Ray Observatory in the latest composite image. The exact number of stars in this cluster is unknown. Compared to our Sun, the stars in the "cluster of stars" are young. This cluster, NGC 2264, is popularly known as the Christmas Tree Cluster.

Furthermore, if we examine the age of the stars in this picture of NGC 2264 and compare it to our Sun, they are young stars ranging between about one and five million years old, whereas our Sun is 4.6 billion years old. The stars we see in this image, compared to our Sun, vary in size, ranging from some with less than a tenth of the mass of the Sun to others containing about seven solar masses.

The name "Christmas Tree Cluster" is no coincidence; its tree-like shape, enhanced by image processing and rotation, mirrors both the presentation and the natural arrangement of stars and gas. Join NASA on a visual journey through space, witnessing the glow of stellar lights in this enchanting cosmic tree. Check out the picture online for more details or visit https://t.co/VT2WaLgp77. Questions to think about: 1. Like many stars in the cosmos. Will these young stars of the NGC 2264 star cluster have their own planets? 2. As the light from these stars/cluster takes nearly 2500 years even after traveling at the speed of light i.e. 3 lakh km/sec. What could be the present situation at this star cluster or individual stars in this cluster? 3. As the article says there are many stars in this cluster with different ages (1 to 5 Million years) and sizes. How would be end of these stars be? 4. Here are some more images which have been discussed

     This object, called the Helix nebula, lies 650 light-years away, in the constellation of Aquarius. (Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Moon Meets Jupiter Image Credit & CopyrightCristian Fattinnanzi 20th July 2020

Mars and the Pleiades Beyond Vinegar Hill
Image Credit & Copyright: Kristine Richer

Leonid Meteor Shower of 2023

Away from city lights from 6th  November 2023 to 30 November 2023 people can witness the celestial spectacle of a Leonid Meteor Shower from pollution-free dark skies a few hours before the sun rises towards the East.

Leonid Meteor Shower: A meteor is a shooting star (layman’s Language), space dust about the size of a grain of sand. The dust hits the earth’s atmosphere and burns up in a blaze of light.

Where does space dust come from? Comets and asteroids pass through our solar system. These objects leave dust behind them. When the earth crosses through these dust clouds we see a meteor shower.
In the case of meteors originating from comets When a comet flies close to the sun, intense heat vaporizes the comet’s "dirty ice" resulting in high-speed jets of comet dust that spew into interplanetary space. When a speck of this comet dust hits Earth's atmosphere traveling at greater speed, it disintegrates in a bright flash of light—a meteor!

Comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle – The source/Parent body of Material for this shower: The parent comet of this shower, 55P/Tempel-Tuttle, passed its perihelion last in 1998, more than two decades ago now. Meanwhile, the comet has passed its aphelion; the next perihelion is only due on 2031 May 20. Meteoroids we observe now are ahead of the comet. The knowledge
of the dust ejection mechanisms and trail evolution allowed us to predict and verify variable activity in numerous years until recently.

Name – Leonid – Constellation of Leo: This Meteor shower is called “Leonid Meteor shower” because the location of the shower is radiant in the constellation Leo i.e the meteors or streaks of light appear to stream from, in the background of Leo constellation in the sky.

When is/was this meteor shower at peak: the IMO states "The (regular") nodal Leonid maximum should occur on 2023 November 18, 05h UT. Maslov (2007) gives November 17, 22h UT with an expected moderate rate of about 15. 

Where to Look and Best Time: the best time for observing this spectacle from India is after 2.30 am. when the constellation of Leo is sufficiently above in eastern horizon. One has to look towards the direction between North East and East Direction.

Society suggests observation from pollution-free dark clear skies away from city lights with good horizons for a splendid experience.

15th Anniversary of Chandrayaan 1 (MIP) Landing On Moon - 14 Nov 2008

Yes today 15 years ago on 14 Nov 2008. The Indian Space Research Organisation ( ISRO) purposefully crash-landed *Moon Impact Probe (MIP) * as part of the Chandrayaan 1 Mission. Which landed Southpole of the Moon's Surface. The Moon Impact Probe had the Indian Flag embedded on its four sides.

Further, MIP (Moon Impact Probe) while descending onto the surface of the Moon discovered *water vapor in the moon's exosphere. Here is a post reminded of "Facebook Memories" from 2014. https://www.facebook.com/raghunandan.psi/posts/10152901705162728 .

*Every year* on Children's Day we at Planetary Society, India have been reminding the public with lectures/posts about this historic Day. 15 years ago in 2008 today 14 Nov The Indian Flag reached the moon's South pole. *Here* is 10yr old article https://www.ournewplanets.info/2013/11/indian-flag-on-moon-on-14-nov-new-truth.html.

Further below here is *Dr. Kalam's Statement after the MIP Landed on Moon 14 Nov 2008*. This Statement is Dr.Kalam's 15-year vision for the Indian Space Programme. And according to this statement of Dr.Kalam, we should have landed an *Indian Astronaut* on the Moon by now in 2023. 

On 17 Oct 2023, our organization (Planetary Society of India) completed 20 years. *As a great coincidence* on the same day on 17 Oct 2023 *PM Modi* after discussion with ISRO Scientists gave a vision/plan for 17 Years.


According to PM Modi's Vision by the year 2040 Indian Astronauts will walk on the Moon*. For more details see the description of the short video

15 Launch Anniversary of Chandrayaan 1 Mission - 22 Oct 2008

15 years ago today on 22 Oct 2008 6.22 a.m. Chandrayaan 1 Mission was launched on PSLV C11 Mission .

Chandrayaan-1, derived from the Sanskrit words for "Moon" and "vehicle," was India's maiden lunar exploration mission. This Mission comprised of an orbiter and an impactor. Propelled by a PSLV-XL rocket, Chandrayaan-1 embarked on its journey from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, on October 22, 2008, at 00:52 UTC.

This marked a significant milestone in India's space program, showcasing the country's capability to develop indigenous technologies for lunar exploration. Chandrayaan 1 was successfully inserted into lunar orbit on November 8, 2008.

Importantly, the mission achieved a major feat on November 14, 2008, when the Moon Impact Probe detached from the orbiter and executed a controlled impact on the lunar south pole. The probe struck near the Shackleton crater at 8:31 p.m IST (15:01 UTC), leaving its mark on the lunar surface at a location christened Jawahar Point. 

20th Anniversary Celebrations of Planetary Society, India - 17 October

 20 Anniversary - Year Long Celebrations (17 Oct 2023 to 17 Oct 2024) : We thank all our students, teachers, and well wishers, enthusiasts for their support. I especially thank my mentors for their guidance. Importantly media friends for taking our work/articles across India creating awareness in the general public and students.

**Note**: Our Logo (where all continents come together is a simulated image of Earth 250 million years from now in future). And is based on our motto for Universal Brotherhood. The Dark patches in our organisation name( in this poster) are symbolic representations of **Dark Night Sky sites** in India & across the world.. which are getting extinct. Hence we need to protect them as ancient heritage of humankind.

Aditya L1 Mission Update

 **Aditya L1 Mission - Final Good Bye to Earth 19 Sept 2.am**.: Early hours of 19 Sept around 2am. **ISRO scientists* will execute a maneuver/operation called **Trans-Lagragean Point 1 Insertion (𝐓𝐋𝟏𝐈)**. With this Aditya L1 will start its journey towards L1 point.Thus **finally leaving** the orbit around Earth.

**All the Best Team ISRO and Aditya L1**


15 JULY 2023 UPDATE : 

Source : Times of India / ISRO 

15 July 2023 EBN : The operation, which was carried out to increase the spacecraft's apogee (farthest point from Earth) began at around 12.05pm as planned and lasted for 11-and-a-half minutes, multiple scientists confirmed to STOI.

After Saturday's maneuver, "Spacecraft is now in 41762km x 173km orbit," said Isro.

Minor Burn on 16 July 2023 If all goes as planned, scientists will carry out a minor burning of onboard propulsion systems on Sunday 16 July to increase the perigee (closest point to Earth). It will be pushed to about 220km from the current position.  "The perigee will then remain stable. The remaining three manoeuvres we've planned will all be for apogee raising," another scientist said.

The three other operations around Earth, as reported by TOI earlier, are planned for July 18, 20 and 25 to push apogee to around 1-lakh-km before Isro attempts to slingshot the spacecraft towards Moon, in the intervening night of July 31 and August 1.