Today at 1.07pm Noon 5th Jan 2020 Planet Earth reached closest point it can get to Sun in its annual elliptical orbit around Sun at 0.9832436 AU i.e 14,70,91,149 km from Sun for 2020. Astronomically this is phenomena is known as “Perihelion”.
Whereas on 4th July 2020 Earth will be at Aphelion at 1.0166943 AU (15,20,95,302 km) from Sun i.e. it will be at farthest point from Sun. In other words Earth tomorrow will be 50,04,153 km closer to earth compared to 4th July 2020. Though people cannot observe this event.
This event is of greatest importance with educational potential for students and public to understand to remove general misconception relating to weather.
Distance not Reason for Season: Commonly it is believed that Distance of Earth to Sun decides the season or temperature on earth. However it is not true. Actually axial tilt (approx. 23.5 Degree) of Earth on its axis while revolving around Sun regulates seasons on planet Earth with one of the Hemisphere facing away or towards Sun.
Evidence/Example: It may be noted when Earth is closest to Sun at beginning of year
2020 its cold with winter in India & most of countries in Northern Hemisphere. Whereas it’s summer in Southern Hemisphere countries.
Also in July when Earth is at farthest point from Sun it’s mostly hot in India compared to what it is January. This clearly shows Distance of Earth to Sun doesn’t decide the Season but its tilt.